أعداء المجتمع المدني

د. نايجل أشفورد


ليس من قبيل المصادفة أن الأنظمة الفاشية والشيوعية على مر التاريخ أعلنت الحرب على الأسرة، وحاولت تأليب الأبناء على آبائهم، والزوجات على أزواجهن، والأجيال بعضها على بعض. وسبب هذا هو رغبة الدولة في الحصول على المعلومات لخدمة أغراضها الخاصة، وحاجتها للمطالبة بولاء أقوى من الولاء الذي فُطر الناس على حمله لأسرهم وأسبق له. هذه المؤسسات تُعد تخريبية في مثل هذه المجتمعات لأن الحب والإخلاص اللذين تخلقهما يولدان المقاومة لمطالب الدولة. فالمجتمع المدني القوي يمثل عائقًا في وجه الاستبداد لأنه يتبع نظامًا أخلاقيًّا يحمي قيم الحرية ويصونها. ومن خلال إضعاف المؤسسات المدنية، تجرد الحكومات الشمولية الفرد من طبقات الحماية التي تقيه من يدها المتطفلة الوقحة. وحين تختفي هذه الطبقات التي تفصل بين الفرد والحكومة، يصير الفرد مكشوفًا في مواجهة أعداء المجتمع المفتوح الذين يُخضعون حرية الفرد لسلطة الدولة.

ونجد شبكة معقدة من الالتزام المتبادل، هذه الشبكة التي تحفظ القوة الاجتماعية من خلال كبح جماح القوة السياسية تخلق شبكة من الحقوق والواجبات المتبادلة التي تمكن المجتمع من حكم نفسه. المجتمع ميثاق عظيم، ليس فقط بين كل فرد من أفراده، بل يضم أيضًا أولئك الذين ما عادوا على قيد الحياة وكذلك الأجيال التي لم تولد بعد. فنحن نتصرف بما في مصلحة أفراد آخرين لا نعرفهم، ولا يمكننا في بعض الأحيان معرفتهم؛ لأننا مدفوعون بحس أخلاقي يخبرنا بما علينا فعله. هذه الدوافع الأخلاقية تحثنا على أداء أدوارنا على نحو أفضل مما فعلته أي حكومة من قبل وبما يحقق منفعة متبادلة أعظم. فكل من الآباء والأبناء لديهم حقوق ومسئوليات بعضهم نحو بعض. وكل جيل لديه مسئولية تجاه الجيل الذي سبقه والجيل الذي يليه. والزواج والصداقة، بل حتى علاقة الإنسان بالحيوان، كلها محكومة بهذه الالتزامات التي تتولد عنها روابط المجتمع وترشدنا لتأدية واجباتنا تجاه الآخرين مثلما نأمل أن تُؤدى تلك الواجبات تجاهنا ونعتقد في ذلك. ولأن الحكومة تعجز عن أن تحل محل هذه الشبكة، تنشأ القسوة والوحشية عندما تحاول ذلك.

ربما لا تواجهنا في الوقت الحالي مهمة أكثر أهمية من إعادة بناء النظام المدني في تلك المجتمعات التي تسببت الدولة الشمولية فيها في تدمير هذا النظام تمامًا. ومن الخطأ الافتراض أن الحكومة يمكنها النهوض بهذه المهمة. فالمجتمع المدني نتاج للأفعال الإنسانية التلقائية لأشخاص أحرار. وهو يستلزم أن تبتعد الحكومة عن مساعي الأفراد وأن تترك لهم حرية الارتباط بعضهم ببعض. إن تدمير النسيج الأخلاقي للمجتمع أسهل بكثير من بنائه بحرص وتوريثه للأجيال القادمة. وما من شك أن الحرية لن تدوم طويلًا ما لم نبدأ في تنفيذ هذه المهمة. هذا يعني أن الأفراد لا بد أن يكونوا أحرارًا في شئونهم الاقتصادية وأنشطتهم الدينية وحياتهم الأسرية

المصدر: كتاب مبادئ لمجتمع حر

* باحث وكبير مسؤولي البرامج بمعهد الدراسات الإنسانية بجامعة جورج ماسون في آرلينجتون بولاية فيرجينيا

يتم نشر المقال بالتعاون مع مشروع منبر الحرية

 


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