"الشخصية الليبية" ...مدخل لفهم الأزمة السياسية في ليبيا 

روعة قاسم


التفجيرات .. الاغتيالات السياسية .. الصراع القبلي ..والانفلات الأمني .باتت تشكل ابرز معالم المشهد السياسي في ليبيا ..فبعد مضي ثلاثة أعوام على قيام ثورة 17 فبراير -لم يتمكن بلد عمر المختار من السير بوضوح على طريق مسار الانتقال الديمقراطي

بل بالعكس غرق أكثر فأكثر في دوامة من الأزمات والصراعات السياسية وسط غياب كامل لمنطق الدولة.

ان جزء هاما من أسباب هذه الفوضى الأمنية والسياسية يكمن في جوهر الشخصية الليبية نفسها التي تتميز بخصائص تتمحور حول ثالوث القبيلة والغنيمة والغلبة.

لقد حاول الباحث في علم الاجتماع التونسي د. المنصف وناس في كتابه الأخير «الشخصية الليبية..ثالوث القبيلة والغنيمة والغلبة» الصادر عن الدار المتوسطية للنشر، ان يدرس ركائز «الشخصية القاعدية الليبية» معتبرا ان خاصية الارتجال وعدم التروي والاعتداد بالرأي الاوحد، هي صفات تسيطر على الشخصية البدوية وتؤثر في سلوكها وتنعكس على الدولة من خلال تهميش دور المؤسسات. ولئن كانت هناك محاولة لإقامة دولة في ليبيا لكن اصطدمت بعراقيل وبقيت الإدارة ضعيفة امام المؤثرات الأخرى..

وخلال الندوة التي التأمت امس للتعريف بكتابه الجديد، اكد وناس ان عدم الاستقرار يمثل خاصيّة مهمة ترفد الشخصية الليبية . فقد انعكست سمة الترحال سلبا على النظام السابق ولوحظ عدم استناده الى آلية ادارية الأمر الذي لعب دورا كبيرا في هشاشة الدولة السابقة.

يرى الباحث في علم الاجتماع السياسي ان خاصيّة القبيلة ظهرت بجلاء في المشهد الليبي بعد ثورة 17 فبراير.وفي السياق نفسه يؤكد الدكتور عبد السلام عمارة استاذ القانون في جامعة طرابلس تعليقا على ما ورد في كتاب وناس ان هناك نهبا للثروات الليبية من كل الجهات اليوم من البرلمان والقبائل والمجالس المحلية وايضا من الخارج.

وبحسب عمارة فان الشخصية القبلية غالبا ما تلجأ للسيطرة على الربح والغنيمة وضمان القوة موضحا ان هذه الخاصية حكمت المجتمع الليبي وادخلته في منزلقات لم يجد مخرجا منها.

الصراع الاقليمي

لا ينفي د.المنصف وناس وجود عوامل أخرى خارجية ساهمت في تعقيد المشهد الليبي تتعلق أساسا بالصراع الإقليمي بين الاسلاميين والعلمانيين . اذ ان هناك صراعا ايديولوجيا بين التيار العلماني والتيار الاسلامي في ليبيا ولكل منهما ميليشياته وقواه ومصالحه سواء الداخلية او الخارجية . علاوة على ذلك فان النظام السابق كان بين فكي التيار العلماني التحديثي والتيار الإسلامي الذي يدعو الى اسلمة الدولة الليبية وفقا لرؤية الاسلام الراديكالي. كما ان البيئة الدولية كان لها دور كبير في تأجيج هذا الصراع حول ليبيا بسبب موقعها الاستراتيجي وثرواتها النفطية .

مدخل لحل الأزمة

في المقابل فان هناك خصائص اخرى في الشخصية الليبية قد تلعب دورا في ايجاد حل للازمة المستفحلة وهي خاصيّة القدرة على التأقلم. في هذا السياق يؤكد المنصف وناس ان الشخصية الليبية قابلة للإبداع والدخول في مرحلة المؤسسات وان التطور العمراني التي شهدته البلاد في بعض المراحل يؤشر الى ان تطور القبيلة من شأنه ان يدفع الليبيين الى تقبل واعتماد مفهوم المواطنة كأساس لبناء الدولة الحديثة.

وقال ان جزءا كبيرا من حل الوضع الراهن في ليبيا ينبع اساسا من تطبيق العدالة الانتقالية ، اذ ان اجواء الاغتيالات والقتل والُثأر التي تعكر صفو الانتقال الديمقراطي لا يمكن مواجهتها دون حوار حقيقي يؤثث لعدالة انتقالية تجرى بإشراف دولي.

 


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